Einstein Was Right!

Well, it looks like Einstein was right.

If you’re interested in the technical details, have a look at some of these links

Christopher Berry’s blog. Christopher Berry is an LSC member and research fellow at the University of Birmingham, and focuses on what gravitational waves can tell us about compact objects.

Matt Pitkin’s Cosmic Zoo. Matt Pitkin is a research fellow at the University of Glasgow, and works primarily on gravitational wave data analysis in a wide range of ways.

Andrew Williamson’s Cosmoblogy. Andrew Williamson is finishing up his Ph.D  at Cardiff University. He is mostly involved in gravitational wave data analysis, and was also a LIGO Fellow, just like me.

I guess that I should stay off the bat that anything I say here, or anywhere in the blog, is just my own opinion. I don’t claim to represent LIGO in any way. And this post isn’t going to be technical. I will do a technical post in time, so stay tuned.

Here we go!

News that something interesting had happened at LIGO started filtering the the IGR (Institute for Gravitational Research) group at Glasgow on the afternoon of the 14th September 2015. It started out with the more observant email watchers hurriedly shuffling along corridors, diving into an office and closing the door behind them. What they were about to say was both secret to those not within the LSC, and so exciting to those within.

“Have you seen?” or “Did so-and-so tell you yet?” – but it invariably ended with

“There’s been strong signals in the detector! And they think it’s real”



And this was a really, really big deal. Let me tell you why. Advanced LIGO began construction in 2010. Initial LIGO began construction in 1997. Before LIGO, there were Bar Detectors, and they date back as far as the late 1960s. Before then,gravitational waves were only a theoretical phenomenon, not able to feasibly be tested. First theorised in 1916 by Albert Einstein himself, they have remained as one elusive measurement of general relativity. This being the case, when there were whispers of a possible detection, people were very excited indeed.

Now some of us thought that this might just disappear, and for a number of reasons, which I can go into later, but needless to say it didn’t.

Of course, only a few people could be involved with the verification process, and I wasn’t one of them. So all that was going on was on the edge of my radar, but straight ahead was my own work. For a while at a time I would hear nothing about the event, then some information would drip through.

In early November, a small representation of Glasgow’s IGR attended a local astronomy conference, where a small presentation on the future of gravitational wave astronomy was given. It was kinda hard to stay straight-faced. But one little leak and the jig was up.



By late November of 2015, the event was solidly in the territory of “This is happening”. The rumours from [REDACTED] had subsided, and the collaboration ploughed on. Eventually, in late November, the results were shared on an LSC-wide level. In one telecon, we would share information about the source of the event – a binary black hole merger event of 2 medium sized black holes, each a few tens the size the mass of our sun; in another, we would discuss how the detectors were performing at the time of the event, and how they’ve been since.  Also shared was the statistical significance of this event. When you see the plots, it’s really striking how loud this event was compared to the noise that we would expect.



Of course, at the end of November was the centenary of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, of which this discovery is a consequence. A bit fuss was made worldwide, and a few of ius IGRers travelled down to London for a 2 day public event hosted by the Institute of Physics (IOP). We were holding a public outreach stall, focussing on gravitational wave detectors, and their place in physics. It was so hard sitting on this information in front of hundreds of others in the same field. Some of them MUST have known.

Roger Penrose was there as a key speaker. In my undergrad studies in Swansea, I wrote my thesis around the Penrose limit in GR, and its application onto gravitational waves. He would know just how big an announcement this would be. The temptation to tell gets even bigger when people ask bluntly “Have you seen them yet?”. I just wanted to jump up and down yelling “YES! YES! EINSTEIN WAS RIGHT!” — but that would not do. So I composed myself and told them simply the standard scpiel.

“The first observing run of advanced LIGO hasn’t finished yet (only recently finished). It will take some time after the run is complete to check through all the data, but rest assured, all results, even negative ones, will be published in due time”

At about the same time, the detection paper writing committee was named. One fantastic thing about a collaboration of 900+ people is that we can get science like this done. One down side is we almost can’t get anything done. Have you ever tried to decide where to eat with 6 or 7 other people? Isn’t that a nightmare? Imagine nearly a thousand people all trying to write a paper. That would be impossible without some executive decisions, committee thinking, and it has resulted in a really lovely paper, which is a joy to see.

Of course, the paper took time, and there were disagreements. During that period, the LSC-machine chugged away, and excitement mounted.

In January, the paper was all but done, and was shared around the LSC before submitting to the peer reviewers.


And that’s about all the story I have leading up to the moment. But luckily, here I am on site at LHO, with our own little press event!



The press conference starts on Feb 11th at 7.30am here at the Hanford observatory. Knowing that we were about to dawn on a new era of gravitational wave astronomy, I took this picture. It seemed appropriate.

We had to get up at the crack of dawn to be on site before 7. That meant a 5.30 alarm. But the morning flew by, and before I know it, I have coffee and I’m picking at the breakfast spread.

I sit towards the back of the auditorium, where we are live streaming the press conference that was being held in Washington DC (the one everyone thinks whenever I say “Washington”). The excitement was palpable. Not just on site, but seemingly world wide through social media. I guess that I have a selection bias.

You can see the whole press conference here:

At the moment when Dadid Reitze spoke those words, “We have detected gravitational waves”, the room burst into applause. I’m sure everyone who’s ever worked with gravitational wave detection in their lives was smiling from ear to ear at that moment. I know I was. But I mean, I’m new to this. I’m 18 months into my Ph.D. People like Jim HoughKip Thorne, and Rai Weiss have been working in the fields for longer than I’ve been alive! The gratification for these people must have been immense!

It was fantastic to see all of these people, David, Gaby (Gonzalez), Rai, and Kip, giants in the field, speaking about the project I’ve been working towards, about the facility that I was sitting in, and about the this achievement, decades in the making, was really great. They spoke eloquently and to the point. They answered all of the streamed Q&A questions well, and then, the stream finished. It was just about the fastest hour and a half in my life.

Then, our press conference began! You can’t stream that one.


From right to left, the picture shows: Mike Landry, Shiela Dwyer, Kiwamu Izumi, Greg Mendell, Jenne Driggers and Fred Raab. They each spoke to a specific aspect of the lab, the detection, the history and the future, and each had a chance to get questioned briefly after their own segment. It was so obvious that the local press couldn’t wait to jump on this lot for questions.

Now, the press were local. They weren’t necessarily all scientists – so some more than others wanted to know that basics of the science. About how the wave form can lead us to conclude that billions of years ago, black holes inspiralled, or about what is mean by the terms “loud” and “noise” in this context. It seems like we are all so close to the subject, so entrenched in the lingo that it might be a barrier to the wider public.

Between each speaker the press would interject with questions for five or ten minutes, and so the whole press conference took much longer than was expected. But I found it to be a really interesting experience. As the panel went across, the speakers went from overview, to detailed, and back to overview. By the end of speakers’ part, there was seemingly little left to ask.

Fred, the director of LHO, spoke for the longest, and spoke on a wide range of subjects, from the time invested into this discovery, to the astrophysics involved with a merger like this. At one point, he made a comment that cracked me up. The context here is this: in the merger, a black hole of 29 solar masses and a black hole of 35 solar masses. The resulting black hole was not 62 solar masses, but 62. The weight of 3 suns had been radiated away. To that effect,  Fred added something like ‘The most energy ever released by humanity was from the Tsar Bomba, a soviet hydrogen bomb. It released all the energy contained in a 5lb bag of sugar. They realised it was inefficient because you can only kill people so dead’. I couldn’t contain my laughter.

After that was done, we hung around, and I got a chance to meet people. Since I arrived here, I’d not been given a chance to mingle so much, what with everything being so spread out. So it was really valuable to me. But then, as the announcement was early here, it was all said and done by 11. So back to work. The day passed like any other. Well, it tried to, but there was an air of joy about the lab. And media. The phones were ringing all day, and there was always a reporter on site.

In the evening, Mike had invited us to his house for a celebration. There was another reporter there too. She recorded the toast with her microphone. Oh, and the cake. I guess Mike had a cake made specially for the event. Here it is:


In case you can’t make it out, it’s huge! It has plots of the detection printed onto rice paper, as well as the significance of the event on rice paper, with the words “LIGO” and “We Are Listening” piped on top. And it was deilicious.

Again, the party allowed me to make new contacts with my colleagues. Something that a friend back in Glasgow said resonated with me at that party. She said “Working in the IGR is like being part of a family”. I had always disagreed with her. I would think that I kept the relationship professional, that it was all business, and thought nothing more of it. But here I am, thousands of miles away from my Glasgowgroup, in the house of a member of my new, adoptive family I guess. We were celebrating the same thing, I was sure, and I missed my Glasgow family, but I felt so welcomed into the family at Hanford, it didn’t matter.  Of course, I’ll be glad when I get back, but I’m also very glad that I’m here.

For one thing, each grroup has its own personality, its own values, and lets off steam in their own way. Glasgow, for one, likes to network, often on a Friday evening, and often in a pub! It turns out that a fair few members of the team at LHO are musical, which led to, last night, the inception of the Black-hole Binary Bluegrass Band! They played a few tunes last night, in fact, Nutsinee said that she had learned to play the upright bass in a matter of days just for this event!

So after a vew toasts “To the next detection” and “To Hanford always hearing it better” (So, whilst the signal reached the sister observatory, LLO first, and they like to parade that fact, the signal was much more clear at the Hanford observatory),  and some bubbly, we were left to our own devices, but with the need to drive home and get to work for Friday morning, Darkhan and I shuffled home before long.

And I guess that’s the day from my view!


I had distributed the link to the live stream of the press conference among friends and family over facebook. Throughout the presentation, and in the following Q&A, I was fielding questions from my nearest and dearest, as well as words of support, and congratulations. Which, of course, I palmed off. I’m part of the team who did this, but I had no real contribution.

But who knows, one day, I might. This is just the first detection. There are other firsts yet to come. The first detection of GWs from a rotating neutron star, or binary neutron star inspirals, or some real astrophysics done on an ensemble of gravitational wave events.


To read about what others think, try looking at some of these blogs from other LVC members and enthusiasts! I will do a more texhnical post in time, and add the link here!

Shane Larson’s Harmonies of Spacetime

Daniel Williams’ Riding the Wave

Sean Leavey’s own view

Amber Struver’s article here

Becky Douglass’ GW: The Big Discovery

Roy Williams’ blog here




It’s the journey that matters

So, I’m set to get from Glasgow, Scotland, over to a small airport called Pasco, in Washington. On paper it’s fine, but in practice, it’s a different kettle of fish.

[A note on the map: I want to keep it fairly local, so only the final stop airport will make it onto the map today. Else we’d have 3 countries in 2 continents, 3 states and 5 airports]

Throw in some storms, some extra charges, lots of snow and a diversion, and we have a very tired Brynley. So where should we begin. The beginning? Buckle up, this could take a while.


Well, that’s just throwing things into a suitcase? Right. Let’s move on.

The morning in question

Picture this. It was a stormy night, with high wind warnings in place over the west of Scotland. Storm Henry wasn’t having any fun. And nor was I. I had a taxi booked to pick me up and take me to the airport at 3:30am, and I was having trouble sleeping the night before. I was a real whole hot mess. I was unwell from all the food I’d been trying to eat to empty the fridge, I was stressed about the travel ahead, and what awaited me on the other side, I was emotional about leaving my partner half the world away for a third of a year, and I was tired, not being able to sleep because of the above reasons.

Anyway, eventually, 3:30 came. My flatmate woke up to see me off, and that meant a whole lot to me, and then I was in the taxi with 2 suitcases, a big ol’ backpack and a huge ball of nerves. No turning back now. It’s windy and wet, and I can feel the taxi shaking in the wind. I only thought of “what if…”. If the plane couldn’t leave.

So I get to the airport fine, and go to baggage check. This is just a routine thing, right. Put the bags behind the desk and go through to security, right? It only took me an hour, and approximately ten minutes of that was in queueing. First of all, alarm bells rang when the woman behind the edsk, upon seeing my passport, told me “We have a problem – your visa expires before your return flight.”. Oops. It’s all I can do to say “Excuse me? Are you sure? Can I see?”, and carry on. It turns out that in the excitement of counting out 120 days (the length of my visa) from February first, I had forgotten that 2016 was a leap year. So before anything else could be done, I had to rearrange my return journey. But at a charge of [REDACTED].

That was honestly my bad. So I get back in line to go to another desk where somebody can take a payment. We go through it all, and I’m told that I have to queue again to finish checking my bags. On to the 3rd counter of the morning.

This time, the attendant is a bit more chatty and reassuring. “Can we weigh your carry-on bag. Hmm, just under 12kg, that’s ok. Now, put your first bag onto the belt. Do you have any spare batteries in here?” Then I say, foolishly, “No, I have some in my carry-on though”. Suddenly, it’s like an interrogation but with very complicated rules. In my carry-on, I had 2 laptop computers, each containing one battery, plus one spare battery for my work computer. I explain this to the attendants, who are now conferring behind the desk about the various regulations. “You’re only allowed up to 2 spare batteries.” “Well, that’s ok, I only have one.” “But most people only travel with one laptop, so it’s sort of two” This idiocy went back and forth for five minutes before we (read: I) compromised and moved my one spare battery into another pocket, so that it wouldn’t short and spark somewhere.

Right. Then I said “I have to add another bag, I could only book one in online”. “Oh, you’ll have to talk to Melissa for that.” Melissa wasn’t her name, but it was somewhere between 4 and 5am at this point, and I was, at the very least, disgruntled. Melissa, the woman who had taken my charge for re-booking the flights was currently engaged with another customer, so this is where most of the queueing occurred. In the end, it was a simple process to book another item of luggage on, and it cost me a further £[REDACTED]. But this was planned and necessary.

So now, an hour after arriving at the baggage check, the bags go down the conveyor belt and I am free to go upstairs and into security.

Cue the random swabbing. I don’t know what they were looking for. Drugs, explosives, pathogens. They didn’t find anything, so off I trot into the departure lounge. A room for waiting made almost entirely of clocks. Anyway, time passes, yadda yadda and before I know it, I’m on my very empty flight with three seats to myself, off to Amsterdam.

Flight the first – Glasgow to Amsterdam



Nothing exciting happened. It was an hour and a half from 6am (UTC) to 8.30am (CET). I’ve spend lots of time in Schiphol before. I knew what to expect.

At Schiphol



Whilst at Schiphol, I had a few hours to kill. So I found followed my boarding pass to my gate. Except it wasn’t a gate, it was pre-security. I had a nice light grilling from US immigration before being told that my real gate was a little way away. So I go to that gate, pull a laptop and get to wasting time! I had 2 or 3 hours of podcasts before I sprung for a coffee and a sandwich, then the flight to Minneapolis boarded. This was the big one. Lots of hours long, over that Atlantic, and I had requested an aisle seat (I’d been stung before by window seats on long flights. When boarding the plane, I’ve been pre-cleared for security, but OH! Cue random check number two! Another person, swabbing my hands, trousers, coat and jacket, putting into a machine only to tell me that I didn’t need swabbing. Hoozah.

After waiting for what felt like forever, onto the plane.

Flight the Second Amsterdam to Minneapolis



This was long. But fortunately, I had both a window seat and an aisle seat. Two whole seats to myself. Or rather, one for me, and one for the blanket/headphones/pillow/laptop/tablet. Entertainment was a must. On this flight, I knew that I had to get some sleep, but that it wouldn’t be possible without distraction from the endless hum of the engines.

Throughout this flight, I consumed:

and some in-flight service/meals including

  • A hot towel
  • Peanuts, pretzels
  • Veggie lasagne, seeded roll, butter, cheese and crackers, salad, one glass of water
  • Another glass of water
  • Some biscuits
  • A bottle of water
  • Another hot towel
  • Cheese and salami sandwich, chocolate icecream, and a coffee.

During this flight, I tried to nod off. I got maybe an hour, or 90 minutes of sleep total, in it was really shallow, interrupted, intermittent surface-sleep.  Not ideal.

So for the majority of the flight, the main lights were out. Most of the blinds were down (except when the row opposite would open them and check every five minutes) So at least it wasn’t a strenuous journey. About half an hour before we were due to land (15:00 CET? Not sure of the time zone) is when we get our final meal, the lights come up, and I desperately want more time so that I can sit through the final episode of The Jinx. The pilot announces that Minneapolis is under snowy conditions, and we can’t land until it has been cleared off of the runway. This gets me enough time to finish my show, but I also know that it eats into my time at the airport. This is definitely a good thing. I was scheduled to spend 7 hours in Minneapolis. In the end, I didn’t even have 4.

At Minneapolis St. Paul



“Light snow” is how the weather was described over the tannoy in the plane. When we landed, it was at least a foot deep. So after we had all disembarked (or “deplaned”, apparently), we were herded through passport checks. This was a long queue. My backpack was heavy (12kg + a bottle of water I had bought earlier), I was tired, and I had nobody to chat with. When I’m grumpy, inane chat makes me feel better, somehow. So anyway, I’m queueing for maybe half an hour before I get called forward. I turn over the relevant documents, jam my fingers against the fingerprint scanner, and go onn through to the baggage claim.

Now, for customs, we have to claim our baggage here, then we can re-check it almost instantly. I had nothingg to declare at customs, so I just strolled on through, and took this opportunity to shuffle things about. I put some books and chargers from my backpack into one of these bags. That made the rest of the trip easier.

After that, there was a small security stand. I took off my boots, coat, jacket, bag, took out both laptops and walked through the detector. This time, there was no random security check. So I get dressed again, and see if I can find a departures board. I can, and whilst scanning for Pasco, my next and final stop, I find someone else headed that way. She’s a lovely woman, whose name eludes me. A social worker (or something) flying back from Berlin. So as we make our make our way towards the gate together, I switch on my phone for the first time today. It buzzes almost non-stop for five minutes as it inhales the notifications from people wishing me well, and checking in with me (shucks, guys). We get to our gate, having heard whispers of cancelled flights from all over. But I have other priorities. I find a restroom, find a coffee, and grab a chair at the gate, get out my laptop (to check my emails on the AWFUL WiFi at the airport (You should be ashamed, MSP, but your 3 letter code is the same as that of millisecond pulsars everywhere, so I’ll go easy on you.)

So I sit down with my coffee, my bad internet, and I call my man. Its late back in Swansea, and he’s tired, so we chat for a while. But then, after ten or fifteen minutes, the area is very quiet. It’s still snowing out. So I think to check the flight board.

Flight the Third Minneapolis to Pasco

“Sorry Joe, my flight’s been cancelled. I have to go do something.” I’m directed towards a service desk. I was not in a mood to fuck about. So I queue (again) to see what’s going on. The clerks are handing out leaflets for reduced price hotels in Minneapolis, so that we can stay if we have to catch a flight the next day.


I didn’t travel ALL DAY just to wait in the wrong city. Another queue opens up, so I join it early and get seen by one woman, who would soon get distracted by, I dunno, a fly or something. Thankfully the two who remained were much more hopeful. I think to myself “Now’s the time, B-dawg” (I’m B-dawg in my inner monologue, get over it). “You’ve seen the films. Lay on the charm and the British accent really thick. They’ll love it, you’ll enjoy the craic, it’ll be good.” And let me tell you, that brief interaction might have been the most fun I had all day. One woman was chatting about how she preferred rain over snow. “You’d hate the UK, you’d always be wet. From the rain.” Another complaining how the cheap phones made her ear sweat. The word “Sexy” doesn’t always warrant laughter, but I’m glad that it did.  Between them, they managed to book me onto a flight out of Minneapolis into Salt Lake City, and from there onto Pasco, my final stop for the day.

But all this had taken up a lot of time, and by the time they were done, I was forced to run across an airport to the gate I was meant to be at. “At least” they said “the WiFi is better there”. Refer to the map above. I had to get from gate C23 to gate G13 in about fifteen minutes on foot, tired and disgruntled. But at least the WiFi was better there. And it was. From there, I called my supervisor and told him that I was not going to be where I was expected for collection.

Flight the Third Minneapolis to Salt Lake City



It was a short flight. I was sat next to a woman from Montana. She seemed nice enough. I had the window seat. The plane needed some prep before take-off. De-icing mostly. It was sprayed with what I can only assume to be antifreeze on the runway. We were in the air for about 2 hours. I slept through much of that. So I missed out on the free drink/snack. I did manage to get some podcasts in though.

At Salt Lake City

By this point, finding the departures board and running to the next gate was second nature. SLC is another big airport. Where Minneapolis was uniform white from the snow, SLC looked similar, but I could tell that it wasn’t. Being in Utah, I could only assume that it was sandy. By this point, I didn’t know or care what time it was. It must have been almost certainly midnight on Wednesday morning UTC.

So, find the gate, find the loo, check what time the flight arrives to Pasco. I sent a text to my supervisor, to check in that somebody would be there to pick me up. Then, I just had to wait for my plane to board. And it did.

[A note to the reader: You might notice the detail bleeding out as this post goes on. This is for a few reasons. First, as my day wore on, my awareness was reduced, so I missed much of the detail. Secondly, there was nothing of note for much of this. An airport is an airport. They all look like sterile blurs as you run through them. And third, you may notice that this is a long post. I would sort of like it to finish, but I have a duty to you, reader, to get to the end in a proper manner.]

Flight the Fourth Salt Lake City to Pasco



Snoozefest. It was a smaller plane than any I’ve been on before. We wee offered a choice of peanuts, pretzels or shortbread. So I chose shortbread. Naturally. Then I slept, I’m sure. I’m not sure what I listened to, but it might have been this.

At Pasco

Queue the map. I’ll add a legend for the colours soon.

So I landed in Pasco. At last. It must have been about 10pm local time, or 6am UTC. I know, because I was very tired. So I follow the crowds (read: Slightly more than 3 people) to the baggage claim, and wait. And wait. I realise that I have no idea who I am looking for. I haven’t seem any faces, and I know no names. And my baggage didn’t appear to be coming through the carousel. A man in a green jacket positions himself next to me and coyly asks me “Are you here for LIGO?”


I say yes, shake a hand, and return my gaze to the carousel. He introduced himself as Darkhan. Another man joins us, and introduces himself as Evan. (I had heard some about Evan before). We go in search of my luggage. Evan leads the way to Delta’s customer service desk, where a woman with long hair and a beanie awaits us. We explain the situation, hand over my luggage check number of the back of my boarding pass. She tells me that my bags made their way over to Seattle, and that they would be on the next flight into Pasco tomorrow, and then delivered to my home address. Nothing more to be done. All I have with me are my computers, one US-UK power adapter, a phone and a book. And some very, very stinky clothes that I have been sitting (read:stewing) in for more than 24 nervous hours.

Darkhan and Evan lead me to the car and ask me “Is there anything that you need?”.


So we drive a little way into a big store, called Winco, or something. I don’t know where it is, but I’ll try to find it for the map. This shop was more like a giant warehouse, stocked to the rafters with cardboard boxes full of cereal, bread, beverages, produce, cheese. I can take my pick! I only have limited funds for the time being though, and I only want to get the essentials.

  • Apples
  • Cheese
  • Ham
  • Bread
  • Butter (substitute, it tastes too buttery)
  • Beer
  • Tea
  • Cereal
  • Milk

There was this whole discussion about trying new things. You see. When getting my coffee in Minneapolis, I had left milk, and the barista had said “There’s half-and-half over there.”, to which my response was “What’s half-and-half?”. She had no way to answer that, so I elected for 2-percent milk instead. But in this shop, I wanted to try the good brands, things that were popular here. So I did. After checking out, Evan drives us back. We live next door to each other, so that’s at least convenient. They drop me home, help me rescue the keys from the lockbox on the door, and show me around my apartment. It was lovely, but what I cared about most was that it had both a bathroom and a bed.

Aaaaaand we’re home.

I did enough to plug in my phone, get the WiFi code, and post to facebook, and I think I called Joe, back in the UK, all before conking out. The next day, I knew, I would have some errands to run about the town, but only after my luggage made it back to me. It was time to sort out the jet-lag

[Featured image link here]

Getting started [Science mode: Ready]

Hello, world.

I am Bryn. I am a Ph.D student at the University of Glasgow, but for now, I am not at the University of Glasgow. Let me explain.

My research is in the field of astrophysics, but more specifically gravitational waves. As with any project, industry, or activity, there are times where something only has a little attention, and times where it’s in vogue. Right now, in physics, gravitational waves are looking pretty cool, but I’ll get to that later on.

Further, if you’re involved with something, there are often places to be. Stock markets have Wall Street, the BBC has Salford, and gravitational waves have a handful of observatories around the world. These are LIGO Livingston and Hanford observatories (LLO & LHO) in Louisiana and Washington respectively, in the USA; Virgo, near Pisa, Italy; GEO600, near Hanover, Germany; and KAGRA, in the Kamioka mines in central Japan.


[Source: Fig 1]

Like I say, it’s only a handful, but it’s a handful more than there have ever been. More importantly, with the effect that technology tends to have, these observatories are getting better at observing with time. LLO and LHO have just finished (mid 2015) major upgrades from the initial LIGO (iLIGO) to the advanced LIGO (aLIGO) phase of the project. Virgo is currently undergoing updates, and KAGRA is the baby of the group. I’m not even sure if construction is finished, but we have great expectations for the subterranean cryogenic behemoth. GEO is falling behind the group in terms of direct science output, but it has an incredibly good duty cycle (it’s always listening), so it’s useful as an old faithful option.

So undoubtedly, with all of this activity, and with the centenary of Einstein’s predictions of gravitational waves this year, there is a buzz in the air about the field.

So, why am I not in Glasgow? There is a time and a place for everything. If now is the time for gravitational wave research, then the place is surely at one of the observatories. So I filled out 500 forms and then I filled 500 more. I applied to Caltech to be a visiting student, I applied to the US consulate for a visiting researcher visa, and I applied to my funding body (THANKS STFC, NSF!!!) for more money, and I applied my knowledge of travelling in order to jump the pond and come across to the US-of-A. I am currently writing from my apartment in Richland, WA, just a few miles from the site of LHO. Let me set the scene:


Source: Fig. 2

A ways back, some people thought that the desert was a sensible place to live. They were mostly wrong. Some of them weren’t wrong, and they settled near a river. Or, 3 rivers, really, the Snake river, the Colombia river and the Yakima river. They called that settlement something, probably. I call it Richland. The good things about living in the desert are that there is very little rain, and that nobody else wants to live around you. So some very smart people capitalised on the abundance of land and built the Hanford site – a nuclear processing site, where barrels full of thick sloshing bubbling paste is stowed underground for millennia. As if the desert wasn’t a big enough incentive, the constant thought of mutant babies and cancer meant that there was even more land going spare around the Hanford site. So more clever people decided to build LIGO there. What is LIGO? I’ll get to that at a later date.

I’m going to be keeping a map of the places I mention in the blog. Let’s see how fancy, smart and integrated we can make it!


So with that, the scene is set. I am here in Richland for the next 118 days, and I will endeavour to keep this blog updated. I hope you stick with me!

[Science mode: not set]